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The LIVAS is a questionnaire, tapping how a person perceives his or her physical abilities. The questionnaire consists of 10 items, asking subjects to evaluate their physical abilities compared to other people of their own age. The items have to be rated on a five-point scale. Example: Compared to most people of my age I probably walk (1) "much slower", (2) "somewhat slower", (3) "just as fast", (4) "somewhat faster", (5) "much faster". The scale scores therefore vary between 10 and 50. Because 6 items have response categories ranging from (1) very positive to (5) very negative, they are recoded in order to have higher scores representing more positive physical self-efficacy beliefs.