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The DSMI can be used to assess how patients with type 2 diabetes take care of themselves, to implement interventions tailored to the needs of individual patients, and to develop patient-centered teaching materials. Lin’s self-management dimensions questionnaire included five dimensions: self-organization (10 items), self-adjustment (nine items), interaction with health experts and influential individuals (nine items), blood sugar self-monitoring (four items), and adherence to diet (three items), which comprised a total of 35 items. The English version of the questionnaire was measured using the five-item Likert scale. The scoring of each item ranged from never (1) to always (5).