Respiratory rate (RR) is an essential vital sign and a fundamental element of patient assessment. Generally, changes in RR occur automatically in response to a physiological demand but it is possible to consciously increase or decrease RR for short periods. Changes from as little as three to five breaths per minute (bpm) may indicate a change in the patient’s condition (Field, 2006), and are often the first sign of deterioration (Dougherty and Lister, 2015). RR therefore provides a baseline for future comparisons and helps determine the patient’s acuity. While other vital signs can be measured continuously using technology, RR often relies on visual observation of chest movement at periodic intervals. There are limitations to intermittent measurement, which can be affected by issues such as anxiety and activity
Year: 2020 Authors: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) Disease: COPD Outcome: Physical activity / Muscle strenght
See more tools that use this outcome
Measure: Exercise capacity
See more tools that use this measure
Number of RCTs that used this tool (in our study): 2
See the RCTs
Scale: Unclear Reference: NICE CG50: Recognition of and response to acute illness in adults in hospital. National Institute of Clinical Excellence. (2020). Accessed13-01-2020.
Target population: General population Focus Disease specific Translations available: Unclear Original version validated: Unclear Original language: Unclear Form of delivery: Medical examination Licence needed: Unclear