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The PCS is a 4-item scale that was originally used to assess how competent people perceived their ability to perform a behavior. The PCS was adapted for HF medication and dietary behaviors as recommended by creators of the original instrument. Each scale included four-items that reflected the participants’ experiences of feeling able to manage their HF successfully. For example, “I feel confident in my ability to improve my sodium by changing my diet.” Responses were made on a seven-point Likert-type scale, ranging from one to seven. Higher total scores indicate more self-confidence for low-sodium diet and medication adherence.