The CES-D is a 20-item measure that asks caregivers to rate how often over the past week they experienced symptoms associated with depression, such as restless sleep, poor appetite, and feeling lonely. Response options range from 0 to 3 for each item (0 = Rarely or None of the Time, 1 = Some or Little of the Time, 2 = Moderately or Much of the time, 3 = Most or Almost All the Time). Higher scores indicatie greater depressive symptoms; The CES-D also provides cutoff scores (e.g., 16 or greater) that aid in identifying individuals at risk for clinical depression
Year: 1977 Authors: Radloff Disease: COPD Outcome: Coping with the disease, including depression and anxiety
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Measure: Depression
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Number of RCTs that used this tool (in our study): 4
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Scale: Lower scores are better, scores range 0-60 Reference: Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D Scale: A Self-Report Depression Scale for Research in the General Population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1(3), 385–401.
Target population: General population Focus Generic Notes Caregivers Translations available: Yes Original version validated: Yes Original language: English Form of delivery: Self-reported Licence needed: No 10.1177/014662167700100306