The STAI includes 40 items on a 4 point scale. This questionnaire includes 20 items for assessing trait anxiety and 20 for state anxiety. State anxiety items include: “I am tense; I am worried” and “I feel calm; I feel secure.” Trait anxiety items include: “I worry too much over something that really doesn’t matter” and “I am content; I am a steady person.” All items are rated on a 4-point scale (e.g., from “Almost Never” to “Almost Always”). It can be used in clinical settings to diagnose anxiety and to distinguish it from depressive syndromes. It also is often used in research as an indicator of caregiver distress
Year: 1983 Authors: Spielberger et al Disease: COPD Outcome: Coping with the disease, including depression and anxiety
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Measure: Anxiety
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Number of RCTs that used this tool (in our study): 4
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Scale: Lower scores are better Reference: Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., Lushene, R., Vagg, P. R., & Jacobs, G. A. (1983). Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Target population: General population Focus Generic Translations available: Yes Original version validated: Yes Original language: English Form of delivery: Self-reported Licence needed: Yes