The DASS-21 is a set of three self-report scales designed to measure the emotional states of depression, anxiety and stress. Each of the three DASS-21 scales contains 7 items, divided into subscales with similar content. The depression scale assesses dysphoria, hopelessness, devaluation of life, self-deprecation, lack of interest / involvement, anhedonia and inertia. The anxiety scale assesses autonomic arousal, skeletal muscle effects, situational anxiety, and subjective experience of anxious affect. The stress scale is sensitive to levels of chronic non- specific arousal. It assesses difficulty relaxing, nervous arousal, and being easily upset / agitated, irritable / over-reactive and impatient. Scores for depression, anxiety and stress are calculated by summing the scores for the relevant items.
Year: 1995 Authors: Lovibond et al Disease: Obesity Outcome: Quality of life-Physical and psychological functioning
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Measure: Depression
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Number of RCTs that used this tool (in our study): 5
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Scale: Lower scores are better Reference: Lovibond, P. F., & Lovibond, S. H. (1995). The structure of negative emotional states: Comparison of the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS) with the beck depression and anxiety inventories. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 335e343
Target population: General population Focus Generic Translations available: Yes Original version validated: Yes Original language: English Form of delivery: Self-reported Licence needed: No 10.1016/0005-7967(94)00075-U